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化学实验室设计规划解决方案
 点击数:224次 添加时间:2019/11/26 [打印] [返回] [收藏]
        化学试验室存在一定危险系数的空间,实验操作会使用一些酸、碱、有机溶剂等试剂品;试管、烧杯、烧瓶、冷凝管等玻璃器皿;原子吸收、气象色谱、液相色谱、紫外分光光度计等精密仪器以及烘箱、马弗炉等高温设备。 
        化学实验包括化学物质混合、加热、冷却、蒸馏、蒸发、稀释及反应,这些工作可在开放全钢实验台上操作,所需分析设备如分光光度计、瓦斯等。分析化学实验室常会使用一些有害物品,包括高毒性、挥发液体、粉体、有压可燃液体等。虽然毒性物质分析过程可分解为无毒性合成物,但在分析操作上仍为有毒状态,通常不建议分析室操作极毒化学物,如致癌、致命、易爆等化学物及较高放射性物质等。 

        化学实验用房大致分为三类:精密仪器室、化学分析室、辅助室(办公室、储藏室、钢瓶室等)

一、精密仪器室 

        要求具有防火、防震、防电磁干扰、防腐蚀、防尘、防噪音、防潮、防有毒有害气体侵入的功能,室温尽可能保持恒定。为保持一般仪器良好的使用性能,温度应在15-30摄氏度,有条件的最好控制在18-25度,湿度在60-70%,需要恒温的仪器室可装双层门窗及空调装置。 

        仪器室可用水磨石地,不推荐使用地毯,因为地毯容易积聚灰尘,还会产生静电、大型精密仪器室的供电电压应稳定,一般允许电压波动范围为正负10%,必要时要配置附属设备(如稳压电源等)。为保证供电不间断,可采用双电源供电。应设计有专用地线,接地电阻小于4欧姆。 

        气象色谱室及原子吸收分析室因要用到高压钢瓶,最好设在就近地方为能建钢瓶室(方向朝北)的位置。放仪器用的试验台与墙面离500毫米,以便于操作与维修,室内有良好的通风,原子吸收仪器上方设局排气罩。 

        微型计算机和微机控制式的精密仪器对供电电压和频率有一定要求,为防止电压频变、瞬时停电、电压不足等影响仪器动作,可根据需要选用不间断电源系统(UPS)。

一. precision instrument room

It is required to have the functions of fire prevention, shock prevention, electromagnetic interference prevention, corrosion prevention, dust prevention, noise prevention, moisture-proof, anti-toxic and harmful gas invasion, and the room temperature should be kept constant as far as possible. In order to maintain the good performance of the general instrument, the temperature should be in 15-30 degrees Celsius, the best condition to control in 18-25 degrees Celsius, humidity in 60-70%, need constant temperature instrument room can be equipped with double-layer doors and Windows and air conditioning device.

Instrument room is usable terrazzo ground, do not recommend to use carpet, because carpet is easy to accumulate dust, still can produce static electricity, the power supply voltage of large and precise instrument room should be stable, allow voltage fluctuation range to be positive and negative 10% commonly, should configure accessory equipment when necessary (such as stable voltage power supply). To ensure uninterrupted power supply, dual power supply can be used. Special ground wire shall be designed with ground resistance less than 4 ohms.

The gas chromatographic chamber and the atomic absorption analysis chamber should be located in the nearest place where the cylinder chamber (facing north) can be built. The test bed for discharging the instrument is 500mm away from the wall for easy operation and maintenance. There is good ventilation in the room. The exhaust hood is set above the atomic absorption instrument.

Microcomputer and microcomputer control type precision instrument on the supply voltage and frequency have certain requirements, in order to prevent the voltage frequency change, instantaneous power failure, voltage shortage and other effects on the instrument action, can choose according to the need uninterrupted power system (UPS).

二、化学分析室 

        进行样品的化学处理和分析测定,工作中常使用的电器设备及各种化学试剂,如操作不慎也具有一定的危险性,针对这些使用特点,在化学分析室设计上应用应注意以下要求: 

        1、建筑要求:化验室的建筑应耐火或用不易燃烧的材料建成,隔断和顶棚也要考虑到防火性能。可采用水磨地面,窗户要防尘,室内采光要好,门应向外打开,大实验室应设两个出口,以便发生意外时人员能迅速安全撤离。 

        2、供水和排水:供水要必须保证,水质和水量以满足仪器设备正常运行的需要。室内总阀门应设在易操作的显著位置,下水道应采用耐酸碱腐蚀的材料,地面应有地漏。 

        3、通风设施:由于化验工作中常常会产生有毒或易燃的气体,因此化验室要有良好的通风条件,通风设施一般有三种:

        (a).全室通风:采用排气扇或通风竖井,换气次数一般为5次/时。 

        (b).局部排气罩:一般安装在大型仪器发生有害气体部位的上方。在教学中产生有害气体的是上方,所以需要在产生有害气体的上方设置局部排罩以减少室内空气污染。 

        (c).通风柜:通风柜是实验室通风设计中不可缺少的一个组成部分,为了使试验工作人员不吸入或咽入一些有毒的、可致病的或毒性不明的化学物质和有机体、实验空间应有良好的通风。为阻止一些蒸气、气体和微粒(烟雾、煤烟、灰尘和气悬体等)的吸收,污染物质可用通风柜的方法去除。 

        4、煤气与供电:有条件的化学实验室可安装管道煤气。化验室的电源可分照明用电和设备用电。照明最好采用荧光灯。设备用电中,24小时运行的电器如冰箱单独供电,其余电器设备均由总开关控制。烘箱、高温炉等电热设备应有专用插座、开关和熔断器。在室内及走廊上安装应急灯,以备夜间停电时使用。 

        5、试验台:主要由台面、台下的支架和器皿柜组成,为了方便操作,台上可设置样品架,台的两端可安装水槽。台面一般宽为750毫米或1500毫米,长度根据房间尺寸,可设置为1500-3000毫米,高度一般为800-850毫米,台面常用贴面理化板、实心理化板、环氧树脂板、千思板、陶瓷板等制成。理想的台面应平整、不易碎裂、耐酸碱及溶剂腐蚀,耐热,不易碰碎玻璃器皿等。


二、Chemical analysis room

For the chemical treatment and analysis of samples, the electrical equipment and various chemical reagents often used in the work may also be dangerous if they are carelessly operated. In view of these characteristics, the following requirements should be paid attention to in the design and application of the chemical analysis room:
1. Building requirements: the building of the laboratory shall be fire-resistant or constructed of non-combustible materials. The partition and ceiling shall also take fire resistance into consideration. Water ground can be used, Windows to dustproof, indoor lighting is close, the door should be open to the outside, the large laboratory should be set up two exits, so that the accident can be quickly and safely evacuated.

2. Water supply and drainage: water supply must be guaranteed to meet the requirements of normal operation of instruments and equipment. Indoor general valve should be located in easy to operate the prominent position, the sewer should be used acid and alkali corrosion resistant materials, the ground should be ground leakage.

3, ventilation facilities: due to the testing work often produce toxic or flammable gas, so the laboratory to have good ventilation conditions, ventilation facilities generally have three:

(a) full room ventilation: exhaust fan or ventilation shaft shall be adopted, and the ventilation frequency is generally 5 times/hour.

(b) partial exhaust hood: generally installed above the place where harmful gases occur on large instruments. It is above the teaching laboratory that produces harmful gases, so a local exhaust hood is set above the teaching laboratory to reduce indoor air pollution.

(c) fume hoods: fume hoods are an integral part of the ventilation design of laboratories and should be well ventilated in the laboratory so that laboratory staff do not inhale or swallow toxic, pathogenic or unknown chemicals and organisms. To prevent the absorption of some vapors, gases and particulates (smoke, soot, dust and suspended air, etc.), pollutants may be removed by means of fume hoods.

4. Gas and power supply: pipe gas can be installed in chemistry laboratory where conditions permit. Laboratory power can be divided into lighting and equipment electricity. Fluorescent lighting is preferred. In the power consumption of the equipment, the appliances running 24 hours a day, such as the refrigerator, are independently powered, and the other electrical appliances are controlled by the main switch. Oven, high temperature furnace and other electric heating equipment should be special socket, switch and fuse. Install emergency lights indoors and in corridors in case of power failure at night.

5. Test bed: it is mainly composed of a table, a bracket under the table and a utensil cabinet. In order to facilitate operation, a sample rack can be set on the table and a sink can be installed on both ends of the table. Mesa generally wide 750 mm or 1500 mm, length according to room size, can be set for 1500-3000 mm, height is generally 800-850 mm, mesa commonly used veneer physical and chemical board, solid physical and chemical board, epoxy resin board, qian si board, ceramic board and so on. Ideal mesa should level off, not easy to break, acid and alkali resistance and solvent corrosion, heat, not easy to break glassware.

三、辅助室 

        1、样品储藏室:由于很多化学试剂属于易燃、易爆、有毒或腐蚀性物品,所以不要购置过多,储藏室仅用于存放少量近期要用的化学品,且符合危险品存放安全要求。要具有防明火、防潮湿、防高温、防日光直射、防雷电的功能。药品储藏室房间应朝北、干燥、通风良好,顶棚应遮阳隔热,门窗应坚固,窗应为高窗,门窗应设遮阳板,门应朝外。易燃液体储藏室室温一般不允许超过28摄氏度,爆炸品不许超过30度。少量危险品可用铁板柜或水泥柜分类隔离储存。室内设排气降温风扇,采用防爆型照明灯具。具有消防器材,可用符合上述条件的半地下室为样品储藏室。 

        2、钢瓶室:易燃或助燃气体钢瓶要求安放在室外钢瓶室内,钢瓶室要求远离热源、火源及可燃仓库。钢瓶室要采用不燃或难燃材料构造,墙壁用防爆墙,轻质顶盖,门朝外开。要避免阳光照射,并有良好的通风条件。钢瓶距离明火热源10米以上,室内设有直立稳固的铁架用于放置钢瓶。